JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) 2021-09-08T14:20:09+00:00 Dr. Malika Rani Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Nano-scope is a peer reviewed journal in all disciplines of Science, Engineering and Medicine that covers all the fundamental and applied research. The journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated, experimental in nature and theoretically important.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p>Prof. Dr. Uzma Quraishi</p> <p>Vice Chancellor</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p>Dr. Malika Rani</p> <p>Department of Physics</p> <p>The Women University, Multan</p> The effect of annealing time and gas flow rate on optical and magnetic properties of (Al,Co) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by varying Al concentration 2021-08-12T12:26:22+00:00 S. Qaseem M. Naeem M. Ikram Rubab Zahra <p>The effect of <em>Al</em>, a trivalent substitution was investigated in Co doped ZnO with regards to the role of additional carriers in n-type magnetic semiconductors. Nanoparticle samples of Zn<sub>1?x</sub>Co<sub>0.04</sub>Al<sub>x</sub>O with different <em>Al </em>compositions (x = 0, 0.005, 0.010, 0.015 and 0.020) were annealed at 600 oC for different time (5 hours and 8 hours) and different gas flow rates (25 sccm and 50 sccm). All nanoparticles attained Wurtzite hexagonal structure in a stable form after annealing in forming gas. The effect of annealing time and gas pressure were investigated. Magnetization measurements revealed that air annealed samples displayed paramagnetic properties. Nevertheless, after annealing in forming gas, magnetic moments are stabilized and follow a monotonic trend. Diffuse reflectivity measurements revealed the incorporation of Co2+ ions into the Wurtzite hexagonal lattice. The optical band-gap was found to be increasing with increasing <em>Al </em>concentration of up to 0.01, followed by a decrease with further increase in Al concentration</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) Synthesis and characterization of Zinc-Doped Copper Chromites by sol gel method 2021-08-09T18:53:09+00:00 Kiran Batool Rubia Shafique Naseem Akhtar Tahira Yaqoob Muqaddas Jabeen Arshad Mehmood Raheela Jabeen <p>Various preparation and application methods of copper chromites catalyst have recently been extensively discussed. According to all discussions, copper chromites is a versatile catalyst that not only catalyses many processes of national programmed and commercial importance, all of which are related to defense and space research, but also finds a lot of application in the most concerned worldwide, such as environmental pollution control. Copper chromites catalysts have many useful applications in the production of drugs, clean energy, and agro chemicals. Different synthesis methods are presented to prepare doped Zinc Copper chromites, demonstrating a clear understanding of the dependence of catalytic activity. This sample was created using a simple, eco-friendly sol gel method and characterized using various techniques such as EDS, SEM, UV, Raman spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence. Several parameters influence sample techniques. This sample was sintered in a furnace at 750°C for 4 hours. Zinc was successfully doped in copper chromites and emerged completely, according to EDS.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) Effect of Reduced Dimensionality on the Magnetic and Transport Properties of Ca Doped Colossal Magnetoresistive Nanoparticles 2021-08-12T12:28:24+00:00 S. Qaseem M. Naeem M. Ikram Nimra Niamat <p>Magnetic and electrical measurements of different nanosize Ca doped colossal magnetoresistive La<sub>0.7</sub>Ca<sub>0.3</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub> are reported. The nanoparticles are synthesized with the modified citrate rout at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed three dominant peaks 23.04<sup>0</sup>, 40.517<sup>0 </sup>.47.17<sup>0</sup>, 58.66<sup>0</sup> which confirms the perovskite-like structure. The average crystallite size the nanoparticles are found to be 20 to 32nm. All the synthesized nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic ordering close to the phase transition temperatures. The size dependent magnetic and electrical transport properties are explored at different fields and temperature. Saturation magnetization is found to decrease with decreasing particle diameter. It is found that the particle size can tune the trend of coercive field. Coercive field first increases from 78 to 210 Oe and then decreases to 174 Oe. The electrical transition temperature is found to be 158 K for 20nm particle. Oxygen deficiency in such system generally reduces Mn<sup>4+</sup> to Mn<sup>3+</sup> to keep the charge neutrality of the structure and hence it destroys the conduction path ways to mobile electrons, at least in long range, and thus insulating behavior becomes more prominent in the larger temperature range. The trend at lower temperature attribute to the coulomb blockade.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) Electrical and dielectric properties of multiferroic Gd1-xYxMn2O5 2021-09-08T14:20:09+00:00 Javed Ahmad Hina Zaheer Jamshaid Alam Khan Syed Hammad Bukhari Umair Nissar <p>The X-ray diffraction pattern manifest the orthorhombic structure for all the members of the series Gd<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>Mn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>. We calculate the particle size and unit cell volume from the diffraction data. We also calculate the x-ray, bulk density and porosity<sub>. </sub>The optical energy gap observed with the UV – Visible spectrophotometer for the end members of the series. The electrical properties such as electric current, DC resistivity ( ) and dielectric properties like real part of complex permittivity ( ), dielectric loss (tan?) and AC conductivity ( ) have been studied for &nbsp;perovskite Gd<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>Mn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> with substitutions (x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1). The activation energy for the perovskite samples Gd<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>Mn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>witht substitutions (x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1) calculated form DC and AC measurements. Both results are in good agreement with each other and in consistent with the estimated optical band gap for the material</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) Particulate Matter as a Giant Fraction of Fossil Fuel in Urbanized Areas 2021-09-07T17:26:15+00:00 Syed Zafar Ilyas Ather Hassan <p>Fossil fuel injects particulate matter into a clean environment which has diverse effects on the biosphere. It is the cry of the masses which stimulates investigation of the local ambient environment for Particulate Matter (PM) and its sources. The purpose has been achieved by using versatile techniques such as Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI™) for collection, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometry for characterization by Size Mass Concentration, and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy techniques were utilized to identify and quantify different PM in the study area. The urban territories (different locations of Okara) were found contaminated with coarse, fine, and ultra-fine Particulate matter because of local industries and vehicular emissions. Coarse particles (PM<sub>10</sub>) of size 3.2 µm and 10 µm, fine particles (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) and Ultra-fine particles (0.056 µm) were quantified around 8 ?g/m<sup>3</sup>, 10 ?g/m<sup>3</sup> and 25 ?g/m<sup>3</sup> respectively. The obtained results could be linked with the widespread use of low-quality fossil fuels and the increased number of vehicles. The ultimate solution to the prevailing scenario can be in hand by switching over to renewable energies such as solar, hydrogen, and wind.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Structural, optical, and electrical properties of alkaline earth doped La2-xAxFeMnO6 (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) double perovskites 2021-09-07T15:06:25+00:00 Javed Ahmad Maryam Yasmin Uzaira Ahmad S. Hamad Bukhari Umair Nissar Jamshaid Alam Khan Hammad Abbas <p>The polycrystalline double perovskites La<sub>2-x</sub>A<sub>x</sub>FeMnO<sub>6</sub> (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; x = 0.0, 0.4) were synthesized through citrate sol-gel auto-combustion technique. The structural, optical, and electrical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at room temperature, while electrical and dielectric measurements were evaluated at temperature ranges from 303 to 423 K. The XRD analysis through Rietveld refinement suggests the single phase orthorhombic (<em>Pnma</em>) symmetry for all the synthesized samples. The infrared reflectivity (IR) spectra were obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The spectra were fitted by Lorentz oscillator model, to observe the optical phonon modes. The activation energies were calculated by DC resistivity measurements. According to the resistivity measurement the samples shows the semiconducting nature. The temperature dependent dielectric constant and tangent-loss with varying frequency are measured and discussed.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nanoscope