JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) <p>Journal of Nano-scope is a peer reviewed journal in all disciplines of Science, Engineering and Medicine that covers all the fundamental and applied research. The journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated, experimental in nature and theoretically important.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p>Prof. Dr. Uzma Quraishi</p> <p>Vice Chancellor</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p>Dr. Malika Rani</p> <p>Department of Physics</p> <p>The Women University, Multan</p> The Women University Multan en-US JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) 2707-711X Systematic Variations in Structural and Photoluminescence Properties Produced in Zn Oxide Nanostructures by Cu (0-5)% Substitution <p>Effects of Cu addition (0-5)% in ZnO are studied for structural and optical properties. The structural, photoluminescence properties and vibrational modes are strongly influenced with the Cu incorporation. Detailed investigations of the structural features of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures are reported. Our results show the systematic decrease in crystallite size (50.40 - 37.56 nm), lattice strain (1.82 - 1.49 micro), lattice stress (216.33 - 177.64 MPa) and energy density (196.78 - 132.69 KJ/m3) in the limit of small dopant concentration (0 &lt; Cu ? 0.02). Decreasing trends are attributed to the smaller ionic size of Cu in comparison of Zn. Beyond Cu= 0.02 an increasing trend was noticed in crystallite size (41.67 - 70.67 nm), lattice strain (1.90 – 3.11 micro), lattice stress (226.32 – 369.35 MPa) and energy density (215.40 – 573.67KJ/m3. This increase in structural parameters is attributed to segregation of secondary phases for Cu content increase beyond 0.02. Two prominent regions in PL spectra were observed and the deconvoulution of these regions show a strong correlation with the structural changes observed within the limit of high and low dopant concentration. The FTIR spectra show shift of Zn-O vibrational mode toward higher frequency with increasing Cu concentration. &nbsp;</p> S. Naseem Shah S. Rizwan Ali S. Qaseem Yasmeen Bibi U. Majeed Syed Masood Raza Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 3 1 1 20 10.52700/jn.v3i1.53 Photoelectron Collection Efficiency Of PDT <p>Photoelectron collection efficiency for 3-(2-Pyridyl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine (PDT) photocathode in pure Methane and in Argon Methane gas mixtures at different rations i.e. 50:50, 80:20 and 90:10 against decreased electric field and photons of wavelength ranging &nbsp;from 190nm to 230nm has been presented. Maximum QE reaches to ~95%, ~94 and ~95 of vacuum QE respectively in charge multiplication mode. These values are achieved at approximately E/p = 3.5 V/cm.Torr, 2.5 V/cm.Torr and 2 V/cm.Tor at 190 nm respectively. Similar QE are achieved E/p = 4.1 V/cm.Torr, 2.7 V/cm.Torr and 2.2 V/cm.Torr respectively at 230 nm.</p> A. Khalique Rajpar Barat Ali Laghari Iftekhar Ahmed I. A Haalepoto R. H Mari Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 21 27 10.52700/jn.v3i1.48 Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles by Sol-gel method to Study its Structural Optical Properties and Morphology <p>Zinc oxide nanoparticles can be classified as a multipurpose material, along with their distinctive features and applications in optoelectronic devices. This research looks at the morphological, structural, and optical features of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The sol-gel procedure has been used to form zinc oxide nanoparticles with zinc nitrate [Zn (NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>.4H<sub>2</sub>O] and sodium hydroxide [NaOH] as precursors. The main objective is to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by using the sol-gel approach because that is easy to implement and offers the capacity to adjust particle size and morphology by systematically monitoring reaction conditions. X-ray diffraction phenomenon, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy&nbsp;characterization techniques&nbsp;were used to determine the structural,&nbsp;morphological, and optical&nbsp;features of produced zinc oxide nanoparticles. According to the XRD examination, the produced nanoparticles are in&nbsp;a highly crystalline phase nature. The high crystallinity of ZnO is observed in all diffraction peaks, implying that Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized properly using the sol-gel process. The UV-vis spectroscopy produced an absorption spectrum at 370nm due to ZnO nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal the surface structure and grains size of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles at a different resolution.</p> Muhammad Junaid Sonam Ghulam Hussain Noor Ul Ain Raheela Jabeen Waheed Qamar Khan Nasir Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 3 1 29 36 10.52700/jn.v3i1.51 Management of Sucking Pests of early Season Cotton by Application of different Seed and Soil Insecticides in Pakistan <p>Cotton is cash crop of Pakistan and sucking insect pests are serious issue especially in early cotton season. To cope with the issue, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the post emergence effectiveness of two seed and two soil applied insecticides on populations’ development of sucking insect pests in cotton. The seed applied insecticides i.e. Imidacloprid (Confidor 70 WS) and Thiamethoxam (Actara 70 WS) were applied to the seed before sowing. Two granular insecticides i.e. Aldicarb (Temik 10 G) and Carbaryl (Sevin 10 D) were applied in furrows with a modified applicator that was calibrated to deliver the desired rate. The results showed that all the tested insecticides were very effective in controlling the targeted sucking insect pests i.e. thrips, whiteflies and jassids as compared to untreated cotton. Conversely, the seed applied insecticides i.e. Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam showed more effectiveness compared to soil applied granular insecticides i.e. Aldicarb and Carbaryl in reducing sucking pests’ populations. Such systemic insecticides applied as treated seed can be present in sufficient quantity in germinating plants leading to toxicity to pests, and helpful for safety of natural enemies. The population trends of the three principal sucking insect pests namely thrip, whitefly and jassid were varied significantly over the study months thereby indicating that the population build up was favoured by certain factors. Consequently, the use of seed applied insecticides can be a major component to put into practice in the integrated pest management technology of cotton.</p> Muzammil Sattar Muhammad Sarwar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-25 2022-06-25 3 1 37 46 10.52700/jn.v3i1.54 A Technical and Financial Analysis of the Solar Energy Harnessing in Karachi <p>In this paper the technical and financial analysis was done for the extensive market survey relating to the solar energy harnessing in Karachi which is the biggest import, whole sale and retail market and follow as role model for most of other Pakistani markets. The severity of the electrical energy crises leads to the pressure on the individual user to find solutions for their long, load shedding hours. The marketing and advertisement exaggerated the Solar Photovoltaic panels as the best solutions which trigger the impulsive buying of solar modules and related accessories to produce the “free of cost” electrical energy. However, it was not proven as simple and free as it was marketed and advertised which leads to the tremendous loss of capital / investment and foreign exchange because of the major portion of solar energy related products are imported.&nbsp; In this work, several markets were survey and investigated i.e. Saddar, Bolten Shareshah, Qaidabade, Gulshan and Sohrab Goth where various brands of the solar panels were investigated by means of technical, financial and environmental based in order to optimize the policies and guideline for the investment, installation, &nbsp;operation and maintenance (OEM). &nbsp;</p> Abid Karim Rabia Kaneez Mahmood Iqbal Usama Ayub Sheikh Kamalludin Tanveer Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 3 1 47 67 10.52700/jn.v3i1.52 Field Release Performance of Chrysoperla Carnea for Population Management of Sucking Insect Pests of Cotton <p>Chrysoperla carnea egg cards in cotton field were released for two years for population management of sucking insect pests of cotton. Releases were made at the rate of 40 cards per acre, starting from the first week of June when crop was five weeks old and continued at fortnightly interval up to the end of September. On over-all basis C. carnea caused pest population reduction of more than 40-75% of different insect pests.&nbsp; In first year release, reduction was 76%, 86%, 39% and 52% of aphid, jassid, thrip and whitefly population, respectively. While, results of second year study showed that the predator caused 75%, 80%, 62% and 45% pest population reduction of aphid, jassid, thrip and whitefly, respectively. Whereas, in second-year of study, C. carnea larvae were released in field cage cotton plants which caused pest population reduction of 19.5%, 31.18% and 40.23% by 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars of C. carnea, respectively.&nbsp;</p> Muzammil Sattar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 3 1 69 83 10.52700/jn.v3i1.55 Tailoring the Magnetic and Optical properties of MgO Nanoparticles by Cobalt doping <p>&nbsp;In this work, Cobalt (0-10) % doped MgO nanoparticles are prepared for magnetic and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show the particle size increases from 3.10 nm to 9.50 nm with increasing Cobalt concentration in MgO samples. The secondary phases are observed beyond 5% Cobalt in the host MgO which indicates the solubility limit of dopant in this material. SEM analysis further reconfirms the purity and spherical morphology of nanoparticles in all samples. Its result also reveals that the smallest particles have the largest oxygen vacancy concentration as compared to other samples. The dopant and size-induced effects are observed for electronic absorption spectra and bandgap of the samples. &nbsp;UV-visible absorption spectra show a quantum confinement effect as the optical band gap decreases with the increase of the particle size. The optical band gap of the nanoparticles ranges from 4.68 eV to 3.15 eV which is very less in comparison with the bulk MgO band gap up to 7.2eV.&nbsp; Vibrating sample magnetometer studies at room temperature clearly show the ferromagnetic behavior for pure MgO nanoparticles in contrast with the paramagnetic behavior for other samples.&nbsp; It is suggested that the presence of the ferromagnetic behavior in pure MgO nanoparticles are due to the presence of oxygen vacancies.</p> Syed Masood Raza S. Qaseem S. Naseem Shah S. Rehan Ali Yasmeen Bibi Adeel Tahir Aneela Wahab Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 85 99 10.52700/jn.v3i1.56 Effect of Different Blend Ratios of Natural Fibers on Yarn Properties <p>Yarn construction is an important attribute in fabric construction and end use performance of fabric. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different blend ratio of natural fibers, on yarn properties. Four different fibers such as Bamboo regenerated fiber, cotton, flax, and hemp were used at different blend ratios to manufacture ring spun 16/1 yarns with TM of 4.0. Blend ratios of bamboo regenerated fiber was kept 100%, 90 %, 80 % and 70 % while blend ratios of cotton, flax and hemp were adjusted at 10 %, 20 % and 30 %. Thus, total of ten yarn samples were prepared for this study. Different properties of these yarns such as linear density, lea strength, clsp, tensile properties, unevenness, imperfections, and hairiness, were determined as per standard test methods.Analysis of the collected data shows a significant effect of blend change on all yarn properties. It may be concluded that blends of bamboo regenerated fibers with cotton displayed best results as compared to blends with flax and hemp. Another trend may also be revealed that yarn quality improved as ratio of cotton changed from 10 % to 30 % while degraded as ratio of flax and hemp is changed from 10 % to 30%.</p> Rakhshan Ahsan Asma Akmal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 101 113 10.52700/jn.v3i1.57