JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs <p>Journal of Nano-scope is a peer reviewed journal in all disciplines of Science, Engineering and Medicine that covers all the fundamental and applied research. The journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated, experimental in nature and theoretically important.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p>Prof. Dr. Uzma Quraishi</p> <p>Vice Chancellor</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p>Dr. Malika Rani</p> <p>Department of Physics</p> <p>The Women University, Multan</p> en-US dr.malikarani@wum.edu.pk (Dr. Malika Rani) asghar.ali@wum.edu.pk (Mr. Asghar Ali) Thu, 06 Jan 2022 08:09:42 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Raman Spectroscopy used for Cartonides Analysis: Nutrients in Eatables to Enhance Natural Immunity Against Cancer http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/38 <p><em>Raman spectroscopy (RS) is simple stable efficient diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Carotenoids play a key role in protecting the cell damage by viral bacterial diseases. Vegetables are carotenoid enriched. No standard data is available for carotenoids concentration in non-vegetable eatables. Presently, RS is used to compare the blood and plasma of different animals like sheep, goat and buffalo consumed by human. Beta carotene is first time investigated for eatable animals. The 16 peaks were analyzed with RS within the range of 600-1700 cm-1 for carotenoid peaks by comparing with database available for human samples. This research was done to get the source of carotenoid to enhance the natural immunity by eatable goods. </em></p> Maryam Liaqat, Ayesha Younas, Imaad Rasheed, Saher Jabeen, Zunaira Hashmi, Kamran Arshad, Ali Raza Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/38 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distinctive Computational Approaches for Solution of Energy Optimization of Particles http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/37 <p>The “Thomson problem’ is used to determine the minimum energy configuration of electrons on the sphere’ s surface. We turned this difficulty into an optimization problem, which we addressed with the help of intelligent computational techniques like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). To enhance the system’s global searching ability, a Quantum behaved Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is designed. The Thomson’s problem is investigated and appraised, and has fewer parameters to govern, according to simulation data. In this work QPSO is extremely effective and successful at delivering near- optimal results, as we compared the results with Genetic Algorithm and PSO.</p> Naseem Akhter, Laraib Asghar, Sobia Arbab, Farwa Batool Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/37 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optical Properties of Nano-circuits for Metallic and Non-Metallic Nanoparticles http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/46 <p><em>Optical properties of the nanoparticles can be studied theoretically by using the lumped electronic components. The particles having </em><em>&gt;0 behaved as capacitor whereas for </em><em>&lt;0 had inductor properties on the other hand the electric field perpendicular to the components then the properties of series combinations dominates and vice versa. A first principles electronic structure based method is presented to determine the equivalent circuit representations of nanostructured physical systems at optical frequencies, via a mapping of the effective permittivity calculated for a lattice of physical nano-elements using density functional theory to that calculated for a lattice of impedances using circuit theory. Specifically, it is shown that silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be represented as series combinations of inductance, capacitance and resistance. It is anticipated that the generality of this approach will allow for an alternate description of physical systems at optical frequencies, and in the realization of novel opto and nanoelectronic devices, including negative refractive index materials.</em></p> Maryam Liaqat Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/46 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on the Physical Properties of SmMn2O5 Multiferroics by the Doping of Transition Metals http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/45 <p>The polycrystalline SmMn<sub>1.8</sub>B<sub>0.2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>(B = Fe, Cr, Co, and Ni) have been synthesized by using the sol-gel auto combustion technique sintered at 950<sup>0</sup>C. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction at room temperature which shows that all the samples are single phase because no secondary peaks were observed in the process of fitting by JANA 2006. All materials have an orthorhombic structure with a space group of Pbam. By changing the elements of the B-site with the same proportion, the variation in the lattice parameters and volume is described briefly and compared with other RMn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> multiferroics. The temperature-dependent electrical measurements were performed to calculate the activation energy and Arrhenius plot which show that all materials have semiconducting nature.</p> Javed Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib, Hammad Abbas, Syed Hammad Bukhari, Umair Nissar, Jamshaid Alam Khan Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/45 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Controlling of Home Devices by using MTMF Technique without using IC http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/43 <p>The idea behind our study is to develop a system that would control our home electrical devices wirelessly by using a cellphone. Nowadays advancement in technology has made home automation as one of the emerging trends in modernization of controlling home devices. Conventionally all the home electrical devices are controlled via switches which utilizes the manual work and human effort. As the world is modernizing day by day so the cellular communication has given us a chance to control home appliances automatically from any place wirelessly. The proposed system will utilize the use of DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency) technique present in cellphones to produce MTMF (Multiple Tone Multiple Frequency) technique for our algorithm designed in MATLAB. This system provides controlling of home appliances through mobile phone by dialing a particular number and the digital output would be generated by DTMF and MTMF by receiving the command from cell phone. Hence the proposed system will meet the demand of people by providing them control of their home devices wirelessly from any place. Thus, the developed system reduces the human effort and the living environment will be more comfortable and satisfactory.</p> Usama Ayub, Muhammad Habib ur Rehman Quamar khan Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/43 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative for Renewable Energy http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/40 <p>Importance of renewable energy resources has increased since the discussion on climate change has evolved from a lesser-known fact to a global issue. Heavy traffic across the globe has increased abruptly. Utilization of the energy generated by the interference of wheels of a moving vehicle and a speed breaker. A roller conveyor would serve as a part of the road that is embedded as a speed breaker. Millions of cars pass through the national highways if we are to implement the system or the project which is under consideration by means of the “Power generation by using the speed breakers”. The apparatus would consist of a roller conveyor attached to a full-fledged mechanical gear operational on the rack and pinion mechanism. The product design is assembled to acquire less space and provide more useful energy. The product design is feasible and can be implemented across the globe anywhere on the highways. The whole concept is based upon the electromechanical principles of physics mainly. Keywords: Renewable energy, electromagnetism, electrical power, energy demands, speed breakers.</p> Muhammad Osama, Najam Waseem, Emran Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/40 Thu, 23 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Facile Chemical Synthesis of Cadmium and Neodymium doped Copper Chromite by Sol gel Method http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/36 <p>Using a simple and inexpensive sol-gel synthesis technique, Nd and Cd doped copper chromite spinel nanoparticles (M<sub>x</sub>Cu<sub>1-x</sub>Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) with x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 were investigated. The crystal structure, elemental composition, nanoparticles nature, and bandgap of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined using XRD, EDS, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence. As prepared calcined at 750°C for four hours, resulting in an increase in average grain size from 37nm to 41nm, as demonstrated by XRD results. XRD tells us about the crystal size and dislocation density of samples. The value of 2???? for the XRD patterns is ranging from 25 to 55 . The band gap is calculated from the PL spectra and is 4.96 eV for the parent compound. When we doped elements with different concentrations in parent compound, the value of band gap decreases to 2.43 eV for Neodymium and 2.42eV for Cadmium. Similarly, SEM results show that the structure of pure copper chromites is tetragonal, and that after doping with other compounds, the structure will change according to the characteristics of Nano particles. In the PL spectra, four peaks are obtained: one at 347nm, one at 380nm, one at 500nm, and one at 600nm.EDS demonstrated that Cadmium and Neodymium was successfully doped in copper chromite and completely merged</p> Kiran Batool, Arshad Mehmood, Aqeel Ahmad Shah, Alidad Chandio, Farwa Batool, Rubia Shafique, Naseem Akhter, Tahira Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/36 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Structural, optical and cytotoxic behavior of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and its nanocomposites with zinc oxide http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/34 <p>Different metallic oxide nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity against various types of cancerous cells. The cytotoxicity mostly depends on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. For that purpose, TiO<sub>2</sub> and ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical route. Additionally, the ZnO was deposited on TiO<sub>2</sub> to prepare nanocomposites ZnO@TiO<sub>2</sub> .The Prepared nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical and cytotoxicity behaviour by using techniques by&nbsp; X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible spectroscopy and ROS generation .Their structural properties indicate the anatase phase of TiO<sub>2</sub> while ZnO formed has shown hexagonal wurtzite structure. The SEM images showed that TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs are formed in very small and uniform spherical morphology while ZnO formed in the form of small nanorods. Both types of morphology are visible in the ZnO@TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposites as well. The optical energy band gap values show the reduction in the band gap of TiO<sub>2</sub> when it’s composite has been made with ZnO nanorods. The anticancer activity was checked through ROS generation, MTT assay was used for this purpose. The results show almost uniform ROS generation in case of TiO<sub>2</sub> and ZnO nanostructures but it shows a reduction in ROS generation in case of ZnO@TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposites. This result may be related to the less available surface area for the individual particles of one type for ROS generation</p> Allah Ditta Khalid, Naeem-ur- Rehman, Sadia Saghar Iqbal, Saeed Ahmad Buzdar, Mushtaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/34 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Yttrium doping on the physical properties of ErMn2O5 http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/44 <p>We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of perovskite system Er<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>Mn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) synthesized by sol gel method. The structural behavior is probed by the single phase formation of the compositions and orthorhombic symmetry confirmed by X-ray diffraction Rietvield analysis. The electrical behavior of the system is explained in terms of dc temperature dependent electrical resisitivity and Mott variable range hoping (VRH) which supports the semicondicting behavior and P-type polaronic conduction above room temperature.</p> Javed Ahmad, Asia Azhar, Umair Nissar, Syed Hammad Bukhari, Jamshaid Alam Khan, Hammad Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/44 Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sintering and property characterization of Copper doped Strontium Chromite by Sol gel method http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/35 <p>This paper describes the synthesis of spinel copper Chromites (CuCr2O4) and doped Strontium copper chromite Nano-Crystalline using the sol gel method. The sample was calcined at various temperatures, including 750°C for the best results. Citric acid is a substance used to keep Nanoparticles from clumping together. The average particle size of nanoparticles was determined using powder x-ray diffraction, which revealed that as the sintered temperature is raised, the crystal size increases from 37 nm to 47 nm more. The sample was sintered at 750<sup>?</sup>C in furnace for 4 hours resulting in an increase in average grain size from 37nm to 47 nm measured using scanning Electron microscopy. The (124) phase of copper chromate having reference number 34-0424 JCPDS number obtained at 750°C with lattice parameter values 6.03?A and 7.8?A. The crystallite size is estimated to be between 37 and 47 nanometers. Similarly, SEM results show that the structure of pure copper chromites is tetragonal, and that after doping with other compounds, the structure will change according to the characteristics of Nano particles. In the PL spectra, four peaks are obtained: one at 347nm, one at 380nm, one at 500nm, and one at 600nm The EDX reading demonstrates that all of the required elements are present in the sample, with no additional impurity peaks. This demonstrates that this is a pure and successful synthesis. This also demonstrates that this is my unique and original work.</p> Kiran Batool, Arshad Mehmood, Aqeel Ahmad Shah, Alidad Chandio, Rubia Shafique, Tahira Yaqoob, Naseem Akhtar, Mehak Bukhari Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF NANOSCOPE (JN) http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/35 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Efficient Swarm based Feature Selection Technique using Random Weight Neural Network http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/49 <p>Feature selection (FS) is one of the most important pre-processing tasks in machine learning (ML) and data mining, that selects optimum features by eliminating noisy and irrelevant features from the data; to improve the generalization ability of a learning model (i.e., classifier). During the classification process, data with high dimensional feature space requires different optimization techniques to obtain better predictive performance. In this paper we present a swarm intelligence based technique called binary artificial bee colony (Binary-ABC) to obtain optimum feature subset. Different binary and multiclass datasets are utilized to evaluate the performance of our proposed technique. Experimental results show that our technique provides better generalization ability with random weight neural network (RWNN), when compare with other ML classifiers.</p> Muhammad Manshah, Rana Aamir Raza, Saadia Ajmal, Urooj Pasha, Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2022 http://jn.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/49 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000